Wednesday, December 10, 2008

Kerana Cheng Ho, Saya Pilih Kunming..


Ibnu Hasyim Catatan Santai

MASUKNYA Islam ke China melalui dua jalur. Iaitu jalur laut melalui Guang Zhou, sedangkan jalur darat melalui San Xi, Sinjiang, dan lain-lain. Sebahagian besar para ahli sejarah berpendapat bahawa agama Islam masuk ke China pada pertengahan abad ke 7, semasa Khalifah Usman bin Affan mengirim utusan pertama ke sana. 

Menurut sejarah awal penyebaran agama Islam di China tidak terlepas dari peranan dakwah yang dilakukan seorang sahabat Nabi Muhammad SAW, bernama Abu Waqqas. Makam Abu Waqqas terdapat di Guang Zhou. Pada saat itu, hubungan antara China dengan bangsa Arab terjalin dengan baik. Antara pendakwah atau tokoh pelayaran terkenal anak kelahiran China ialah Haji Muhammad Cheng Ho. (gambar).

Cheng Ho atau Zheng He adalah keturunan Sino-Arab dari Yunnan. Beliau adalah seorang Muslim. Cheng Ho merupakan gerenasi ke 6 dari keturunan Sayyed Edjal Omar Shams Ed Din, gubernur kerajaan Yuan di Yunnan. Cheng Ho lahir pada 1371M di Kun-yang (sekarang Puning), sebuah tempat yang terletak pada kira-kira 60 kilometer selatan Kunming di Yunnan. Berasal dari suku Hui, ayahnya dari marga Ma, seorang Muslim yang soleh dan takwa, serta beberapa kali menunaikan ibadah haji di Makkah. 

Semasa kecilnya diberi nama Ma San Pao, kemudian diberi gelar Cheng Ho. Beliau telah mengabdikan dirinya dalam kerajaan Dinasti Ming dan dikatakan kerana pada usia 10 tahun beliau adalah tawanan Maharaja yang dijadikan hamba. Tetapi nasib Cheng Ho baik bila diambil menjadi pembantu peribadi. Oleh kerana kebijaksanaan, keberanian dan kecerdasannya itu pula Cheng Ho akhirnya amat dibanggakan hingga diperlakukan seperti anaknya sendiri. 

Dari situlah bermula era baru sebagai orang kepercayaan Dinasti Ming. Beliau sentiasa menjalankan sholat lima waktu, puasa, dan ibadah lainnya, walaupun berada dalam lingkungan masyarakat non-Muslim. Beliau mengemban misi perdagangan, diplomatik, perdamaian, persahabatan dan menyempatkan diri untuk menyebarkan agama Islam pada setiap kunjungan ke berbagai daerah dan negara yang disinggahnya. Juga dengan menjalin tali pernikahan, silaturrahim, dan lain-lain. 

Jadi, tidak hairan dari hari ke hari kian banyak saja pemeluk Islam mulai dari orang-orang China perantauan hingga penduduk setempat. Misi muhibah memberi manfaat besar bagi setiap negeri yang dikunjunginya. Beliau kerap melakukan pembaharuan dan perdamaian melalui bidang perdagangan, pertanian, penternakan, keterampilan perkayuan, atau lain-lain. Tercatat juga, Cheng Ho berhasil melaksanakan usaha dagang, seperti kain sutera, porselin, alat-alat pertanian, obat-obatan dan sebagainya. 

Dari kejayaan usaha perdagangan yang dilakukan, rombongan beliau berhasil membawa rempah-rempah, tanaman obat, dan hasil pertanian lainnya ke China, yang juga dapat memberikan keuntungan bukan hanya bagi masyarakat pribumi di setiap daerah yang dikunjunginya, namun juga memberikan keuntungan bagi negaranya melalui adanya pertukaran hasil bumi kedua negara pada setiap transaksi perdagangan. 

Sebagai seorang pemimpin pelayaran, Cheng Ho juga telah menerapkan strategi pentadbiran Nabi Muhammad SAW, Tao Zhugong, Confucius, dan Lautze yang luar biasa. Dengan kombinasi pentadbiran dan manajemen tersebut, Cheng Ho dapat mengatur secara professional menurut masa itu, sistem kerja anak kapalnya sehingga misi pelayarannya selalu berhasil baik, tanpa ada penjajahan dan permusuhan kepada bangsa lain. Dicatatkan juga sepanjang 20 tahun, Cheng Ho menjadi seorang yang berani, gagah dan hebat. Buktinya beliau dapat menumpas pemberontakan anak saudara Ming, yang coba merebut kekuasaan. 

Dengan keberanian dan kebijaksanaanya itu, Cheng Ho kemudian dilantik menjadi Panglima. Selanjutnya ketika putera Cheng-tzu menjadi Maharaja China dengan gelar kaisar Yung Lo, Cheng Ho dilantik lagi menjadi Laksamana. Cheng Ho memegang jabatan selama 30 tahun iaitu pada zaman pemerintahan Cheng-tzu (1403-1424), Maharaja Jen-tsung (1425) dan Maharaja Hsuan-tsung (1426-1435). Cheng Ho akhirnya lebih dikenal sebagai pelaut, kerana peranannya sebagai Laksamana dalam banyak misi hubungan intrenasional. 

Pada zaman Dinasti Ming, Cheng Ho melakukan tujuh kali pelayaran dalam waktu 29 tahun di 30 negara Asia dan Afrika. Cheng Ho telah membantu mempererat hubungaan Cina dengan dunia luar, terutama dalam bidang politik dan ekonomi. Dalam setiap pelayarannya, Laksamana Cheng Ho ditemani Ma Huan dan Ha San dari Suku Hui yang bertindak sebagai juru bahasa. Peranan penting Ma Huan ialah banyaknya catatan mengenai sejumlah peristiwa pelayaran dalam bukunya yang dikenal dengan ‘Ying Yu Shen Lan’ atau ‘Pemandangan Indah di Tepi Seberang Laut’. 

Buku ini menjadi bahan sejarah yang penting dan utama dalam kajian mengenai sejarah hubungan Cina dengan dunia luar. Ibrahim TY Ma (1979) dan H Yusuf Chang (1988) dalam tulisannya mencatat secara kronologis tujuh ekspedisi pelayaran Laksamana Cheng Ho. Menurut H Yusuf Chang, pelayaran ke tujuh pada 1432-1433, sebenarnya merupakan misi haji yang telah diarahkan Maharaja Hsuan-tsung untuk memenuhi sebuah misi rahasia Maharaja Ch’eng-tsu yang meninggal dunia dan belum sempat dilaksanakan. 

Tidak diketahui secara pasti apa misi rahasia Cheng Ho itu, tetapi kemungkinan amanah Ch’eng-tsu yang disampaikan pada Hsuan-tsung itu yang diembah Cheng Ho. Dalam pelayaran yang lain, Laksamana Cheng Ho ditemani Ma Huan, Ha San (imam Masjid besar Chang’an), Kuo Chung-li dan Hung Pao. Sepanjang tujuh kali pelayaran, Laksamana Cheng Ho tiba di Melaka sebanyak empat kali yaitu pada 1408, 1409, 1412 dan 1413M. Hasil penjelajahan laut ini telah membawa hubungan baik antara Melayu Melaka ke Negeri Cina. 

Itu sebabnya terdapat 20 kali muhibah dari Melaka ke Negeri Cina di sepanjang 1404-1435M, sebagai balasan atas interaksi Cina - Melaka yang dirintis Cheng Ho. Cerita mengenai muhibah kerajaan Melaka tercatat dalam ‘Tawarikh Dinasti Ming’. Laksamana Cheng Ho telah menguasai 27,800 tentara pemerintah. Pelayaran terbesarnya ialah mengetuai 249 kapal dan kapal terbesar seberat 3,100 ton dengan sembilan tiang layar. 12 kapal layar dengan selebar kain 15 meter dan kemudi sepanjang 11.07 meter. 

Kelengkapan lain termasuk 100 kapal perang, 180 dokter dan ahli ilmu nisbah. Cheng Ho menggunakan 57 rute laut yang berlainan dari negara Cina dan 53 jalur masuk, bergantung kepada keadaan laut. Melaka sering menjadi pelabuhan persinggahan utama untuk mendapatkan perbekalan dan keperluan logistik. Selain itu, Kota Semarang juga menjadi tempat persinggahan utama dalam urusan rempah-rempah, yang antara lain digunakan untuk pengobatan tradisional Cina. 

Sepanjang 30 tahun dalam kehidupan sebagai ahli pelayaran, Cheng Ho tidak pernah putus asa melibatkan diri dalam aktiviti budaya Islam di China. Pada 1435 dalam usia 65 tahun, Cheng Ho wafat di tanah leluhurnya, sebuah negeri yang menorehkan sejarah pelayaran Islam dari Asia dan dunia. Misi yang dijalankan Cheng Ho sangat berbeda dengan misi pelayaran yang dilakukan pelaut Barat seperti Columbus, Vasco da Gama, mahupun Magelhaen yang zalim dan membunuh penduduk tempatan.

Jika pelaut Barat cenderung bermotivasi untuk menguasai kekayaan dari setiap negeri yang disinggahinya, tetapi Cheng Ho dan dinasti Ming bermotivasi untuk memperlihatkan bahawa selama masa kekuasaan dinasti Ming, negara menjadi sangat makmur. Itulah antara kehebatan beliau, sehingga kini Muslim di China jumlahnya sudah lebih dari 150 juta orang. Peringatan 600 tahun Cheng Ho pernah diadakan di negara China, Malaysia, Singapura, dan Indonesia. 

Kini, bandar Kunming merupakan ibu kota Yunnan yang terletak di bahagian barat daya China. Terdapat penduduk dalam pelbagai etnik termasuk sejumlah besar penduduk etnik Hui yang beragama Islam mendiami bandar tersebut. Daerah Shuncheng merupakan kawasan kediaman secara berkelompok penduduk etnik Hui. Di sana terdapat banyak bangunan yang bercirikan seni bina Islam, umat Islam yang memakai pakaian bercirikan etnik Hui serta kedai Islam di daerah tersebut. 
Masjid Shuncheng (gambar), masjid yang terbesar di bandar Kunming turut terletak di daerah tersebut. Kerana itulah setelah keluarnya artikel saya sebelum ini ‘Thursday, November 13, 2008 Jom Kahwin Ramai-ramai Di China..’ dan ‘Monday, December 8, 2008 Love Story from China.. ‘ ada yang mencadang supaya saya menziarahi sebuah kampung orang Islam di China, perkenalkan kampung itu di Malaysia, dan adakan hubungan kekeluargaan dengan mereka, maka saya pilih kawasan tempat kelahiran Mohamad Cheng Ho sebagai tempat untuk saya ziarahi. 

Ikutilah catatan perjalanan saya ke sana dalam tulisan akan datang, insya Allah! Sekian, jumpa lagi. Wallahu aklam.

Dari
Catatan Santai Ibnu Hasyim
(e-mail:
ibnuhasyim@gmail.com)
Disember08, 08. KL 

Lihat juga..
E-Buku IH-33: Catatan Perjalanan
E-Buku IH-33: Catatan Perjalanan
Dari Cina Ke M'sia, Ikut Jalan Darat

46 comments:

Anonymous said...

Assalamulaikum Warahmatullah Wabaraktu!

Saya sangat tertarik dgn tulisan dan pengambaraan anda, setelah sampai janganlah lupa untuk segerakan tulisan anda. Saya doakan semoga misi anda mendapat berkat daripada ALLAH. Yang dimaksudkan dengan tulisan anda yang terdahulu adakah mendapat sambutan dari rakyat Malaysia untuk berkahwin dengan rakyat cina.
Sekian, Wasallam.

Anonymous said...

assalamualaikum....
saudara ada buat rombongan utk memasarkan produk ke china ke? ada maklumat tak tentang pasaran sarang burung layang-layang di sana?
kalau bole nak minta no tel saudara utk saya bercakap langsung dengan saudara...
terima kasih...

Anonymous said...

salam...saya dah baca artikel tu dan saya ternampak gambar buku bertajuk MEMALI HAKIKAT & REALITI


boleh saya tahu dekat mana saya bole dapatkan buku itu?



wassalam...

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Sara said...

Hello every body,
I'm Sara from Canada, Thank you Dr Andrew for the Retrieve a Love Spell you casted for me and I'd like to thank you for it. My ex and I have been back together for a month now and it's been even better than before. I think this time it's forever We've been talking of moving in together and maybe getting married in the future. Things between us are great, i thank you for helping to bring him back to me. After our times apart we've learned to appreciate each other more and not take anything for granted. Thank you. (drandrewspiritualtemple@gmail.com) after trying and falling through other spell casters and witch doctors i had lost hope but i thank you for handling and solving my problems.I can't imagine my business is doing better than i thought and i will always live to praise you.If you have any problem contact Dr Andrew and he will be of great help to you.
Email: drandrewspiritualtemple@gmail.com

Dr Ogudugu Solution Temple said...

It just occur to me that i have not done the right thing since when my husband came back to me, I am Mayer from United Kingdom, I am on this blog to give thanks to whom it deserve. Some couples of weeks ago my life was in a terrible shape because my husband left me and i never believe that i was going to get him back. But through the help of this powerful spell caster called Dr.Ogudugu my life is now in a joyful mood, I must recommend the services of Dr.Ogudugu to any one out there that they should contact Dr.Ogudugu through his email: GREATOGUDUGU@GMAIL.COM because through Dr.Ogudugu assistance, my marriage was restored.

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* Poweful Magic Love Ring.
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Unknown said...

DO YOU NEED HELP TO GET PREGNANT OR GET BACK YOUR EX LOVE? CONTACT DR. KEN FOR HELP.

Are you in bad need of love spell to bring back your ex lover or reunite your marriage? Email Dr. Ken for fast solution at (supersolutionhome1@gmail.com) or (supersolutionhom@yahoo.com) I had a problem with my boyfriend a year and six months ago, which lead us apart. When he broke up with me, I was confuse and did not know what to do to get him back, I felt so empty inside. Until i came across Dr. Ken on the internet on how He has helped so many people solve there various problem. i emailed Him and I told Him my problem and I did what he asked me to do for him to help me, to briefly make the long story short, Before I knew it, in less than a week, my boyfriend gave me a call and he came back to me and told me he was sorry about what was going on between the both of us, he engaged and we got married. With the help of Dr. Ken I also gave birth to Twins. I'm so grateful to Dr. Ken and His super natural spell casting and will not stop publishing his name on the internet just for the good work he has done. If you need his help, you can email him at supersolutionhome1@gmail.com or supersolutionhom@yahoo.com or view through his website and Contact him there: supersolutionhome.webs.com Call his phone number +2348074433380 and he will also help you too. I will be forever grateful to you (DR. KEN). Here is my blogger http://lukmanvivian.blogspot.com




DO YOU NEED HELP TO GET PREGNANT OR GET BACK YOUR EX LOVE? CONTACT DR. KEN FOR HELP.

Are you in bad need of love spell to bring back your ex lover or reunite your marriage? Email Dr. Ken for fast solution at (supersolutionhome1@gmail.com) or (supersolutionhom@yahoo.com) I had a problem with my boyfriend a year and six months ago, which lead us apart. When he broke up with me, I was confuse and did not know what to do to get him back, I felt so empty inside. Until i came across Dr. Ken on the internet on how He has helped so many people solve there various problem. i emailed Him and I told Him my problem and I did what he asked me to do for him to help me, to briefly make the long story short, Before I knew it, in less than a week, my boyfriend gave me a call and he came back to me and told me he was sorry about what was going on between the both of us, he engaged and we got married. With the help of Dr. Ken I also gave birth to Twins. I'm so grateful to Dr. Ken and His super natural spell casting and will not stop publishing his name on the internet just for the good work he has done. If you need his help, you can email him at supersolutionhome1@gmail.com or supersolutionhom@yahoo.com or view through his website and Contact him there: supersolutionhome.webs.com Call his phone number +2348074433380 and he will also help you too. I will be forever grateful to you (DR. KEN). Here is my blogger http://lukmanvivian.blogspot.com

Unknown said...

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